Introduction to Atopic Allergic Diseases

C.R. Richet (France) won the 1913 Nobel Prize for his discovery of the anaphylaxis.

This life-threatening syndrome is related to atopies. The atopy is the most prevalent (IgE-dependent) type among all allergy conditions.
The "atopic march"
means a consistent involvement of allergic target organs in the following order: the skin, nose/conjunctive, and bronchi. In other words, there is the progression from atopic dermatitis to the development of other IgE-mediated conditions such as food allergies, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in later childhood.

House dust mites (HDM) are the masters of allergenicity, or "kings of allergens" since they cause up to 90% of all atopic allergic diseases. Allergens from mites are associated with HDM's secretions (chitinase), feces (enzymes), and body (muscle tropomyosin and paramyosin). Some HDM's products are related to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), including TLR. The allergenic digestive enzymes are small to reach nasal mucosa and deep down into the lung. After contact with the epithelium, HDM allergens with proteolytic activity degrade epithelial junctions, get inside allergen-presenting cells, and promote Th2-dependent IgE response.
There are other environmental allergens.


Atopic Dermatitis

Food Allergies

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Asthma


Phenotype, Endotype, and Biomarker

Allergic Skin Tests
Component Resolved Diagnosis