Omics Technologies

The omics revolution was one of the major driving forces of recent developments that enabled investigation of almost everything at the molecular level of proteins, lipids, and small molecules including innumerable DNA and RNA sequencings with a hypothesis-free approach [Breiteneder et al., 2019].


Genomics is the large-scale study of genomes focusing on their evolution, functional structure, mapping, and editing. The genome is a complete set of DNA, including all of its genes.
Epigenomics is the study focusing on reversible changes in how the body reads genes when protein synthesis occurs. Epigenetic modifications and their signatures depend on external and environmental factors and do not involve gene alterations. Epigenomics includes the assessment of DNA methylation, histone acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation leading to chromatin changes, and miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Epigenomics technologies allow the translation into specific and reproducible assays.

Transcriptomics is the comprehensive study of such gene products as the set of all RNA molecules (i.e., transcriptome), including non-coding RNA produced in cells. Transcriptomics technologies enable the single-cell transcript detection by cytometry, identification of immunoglobulin and TCR variable regions encoding specific protein chains.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteome. The proteome is the entire set of proteins, gene products, made or modified by a cell, system, or body. Proteomics technologies include multiplex immunoassays, MALDI-TOF, nano-LC-MS/MS, and proximity extension assay (PEA). They lower threshold for sensitivity, and optimization for local tissue analysis.
Immunomics is the study of the immunome, i.e., the set of antigens and molecular patterns in the interface of the immune system responses, including all related processes such as immunoregulation, immunointervention, and vaccination. Immunomics shares genomics and proteomics approaches.
Secretomics is a type of proteomics, which engages the analysis of the secretome, i.e., all the secreted proteins of a cell, tissue, or body.
Immunophenotyping includes flow cytometry and mass cytometry/CyTOF to identify cell subsets. Flow cytometry gating is the selection and analysis of cell subpopulations of interest in multicolor flow cytometry.

Lipidomics is the study of the entire set of lipids (i.e., lipidome) produced or modified by a cell, system, or body. Lipidomics technologies include liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).
Glycomics is the study of the glycome, which consists of sugars and carbohydrates.
Metabolomics is the study of metabolome focusing on such gene products as enzymes as well as metabolic processes and metabolites, including small molecules. Metabolomics technologies include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), extracellular flux analysis of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorilation.
Microbiomics is the study of microbiome, i.e., microbial communities in various specific ecological niches. Microbiomics technologies include 16S RNA sequencing and metagenomic sequencing (MGS) to identify microbes' species.